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With 1863,40 hectares, includes one of the largest and best preserved patches of natural vegetation of the Azores, with great diversity of protected species, habitats and ecosystems, including pioneer bushes of juniper (Juniperus brevifolia) and common heather (Calluna vulgaris ), natural meadows, forested bogs of juniper and bogs of peat moss (Sphagnum sp.), laurifolia forest, etc.. It consists of the interior and the slopes of the double caldera from the Serra de Santa Barbara and the trachytic domes of Mistérios Negros, one of the centers of eruption of April 1761. Integrates the Special Area of Conservation (SAC) of Serra de Santa Barbara e Pico Alto within the Natura 2000 network. The interior of Santa Barbara caldera is a full reserve (IUCN category Ia), so the access to this area is conditioned.